Campylopus introflexus (Dicranaceae; Heath Star-moss) is a bryophyte native to the Southern Hemisphere. It is a neophyte in Europe in a wide range of habitats from bogs to urban roofs and has become invasive in heath lands and coastal and inland dunes. Its fast growth results in considerable soil organic carbon enrichment which contributes to degradation of nutrient-poor habitats. Its ability to form vast mats and reproduce sexually as well as asexually by means of wind-dispersed stem tips contribute to its success as invasive species. It does not tolerate excessive soil moisture or lime.
Prunus serotina (Rosaceae; Black cherry) is a woody species native to Northern America. It was introduced in Western Europe as a multipurpose species at the beginning of the 20th century, and was widely planted for timber production, as wind break and for site amelioration. It now occurs widely in temperate deciduous, evergreen and mixed forests as an understorey shrub where it negatively affects natural regeneration of overstorey species. A short regeneration time and a quantitatively-driven coppicing strategy contribute to its success as invasive species. It does not tolerate dense shade.
Rosa rugosa (Rosaceae; Japanese rose) is a species of rose native to coastal dunes in Asia. Introduced as an ornamental species in western Europe and appreciated for its pleasant smell, tolerance to salt and low maintenance needs, it was widely used in landscaping and planted along roads, and now occurs as neophyte in the dunes along the shores of the Atlantic Ocean and North Sea. It forms dense thickets and its ability to expand by means of root suckers contributes to its success as invasive species.