The research is carried out in 3 different study areas
Island of Sylt (Germany)
Sylt is a German island located in the North Frisian archipelago of the western coast of Germany and Denmark, 38 km long, 13 km wide and with a surface area of nearly 100 km². Coastal heath land and dune vegetation are the main vegetation types on the poor sandy soils. Sylt is a study site for C. introflexus and R. rugosa.
Compiègne Forest (France)
The Forest of Compiègne is a national forest in the Picardy region of northern France, with a diameter of ca. 14 km and a surface area of more than 14000 ha. It is a mixed deciduous temperate forest with Quercus species and Fagus sylvatica as dominant overstorey species. The forest is widely invaded by P. serotina, in particular the stands in the less fertile northern half of the forest.
Averbode Bose & Heide (Belgium)
Averbode Bos & Heide is a 530 ha private nature reserve in the south of the Campine region in Flanders. It features marshes, heath land, grasslands and forests, the latter often old Pinus sylvestris plantations. Owner and manager Natuurpunt aims to restore heath on former plantation sites. The heath restoration sites are subject to recent invasion by C. introflexus.